In the history of American popular music, gospel is the great conveyor. People could hear it everywhere as the 20th century grew from infancy to adolescence: in churches, of course, but also on street corners, sung by wanderers whose guitar work and moaning vocals arose in dialogue with the blues; in factories and mines, where harmonizing quartets provided balm to frustrated workers; on the radio, where preachers and singers performed live to thousands of listeners; and through the new medium of recordings, which turned regional styles into national trends. Virtually every label that sold African-American music in the 1920s had a healthy roster of gospel stars, and those men and women of God were innovators intertwining jazz improvisation, religious call and response, the melodicism of sentimental song and the rhythms of the African diaspora. These gifted performers laid the groundwork for rock ‘n’ roll.
Today, however, gospel is too often relegated to a holy corner, treasured by believers and attracting some curious collectors but generally unacknowledged as the central source it is. That’s why carefully remastered, meticulously presented boxed sets like When I Reach That Heavenly Shore: Unearthly Black Gospel 1926-1936 are so important. At first, such collections might seem merely novel — a bunch of dusty stuff communicating ideas within a framework so antiquated, the music has come to seem mystical. But spend real time with this collection, and you’ll discover humor, craft, cleverness, profundity and an open-eyed connection to the culture of the time. Come for that unearthly vibe, but dive in deep to find something beautifully human.
The 42 tracks on this compilation come from the private stash of Christopher King, a revered, Grammy-winning collector, engineer and record producer whose restoration work has shed brilliant light on a wide range of prewar music, from the blues of Charley Patton to Greek folk violin to Third Man Records’ famed Paramount project. Unearthly Gospel has the intimate feel of a passion project — King’s liner notes mostly consist of quotes taken from his father’s 1939 copy of the King James Bible. Initiates will recognize some tracks and many of the featured artists (much has been reissued by the British label Document and thrown up on YouTube by aficionados over the years), but the material has never been available in the U.S. in such pristine and well-curated form. In his notes, King observes that “the most powerful music … has an effect that is both ineffable and carnal,” and in striving for that balance here, he has created a historical soundscape full of interconnected details.
There is “I’ll Be Rested When the Roll Is Called,” by the guitarist Roosevelt Graves and his tambourine-virtuoso brother Uaroy — a rolling dance tune that some have praised as the first rock ‘n’ roll record. “Canaan’s Land” by the evangelist Blind Gussie Nesbit presages the rough and mighty sound of midcentury Chicago blues. Ensembles like the Primitive Baptist Choir of North Carolina and the Laurel (Mississippi) Fireman’s Quartette show the influence of vocal group styles from shape note singing to the barbershop. The proto-psychedelic East Texas preacher Washington Phillips is represented by a sermon, “Train Your Child,” that leads into a lovely reverie he plays on the zither-like instrument he modified himself. Henry Thomas, a titan of Texas blues, is a vibrant presence on the jaunty, almost Caribbean-flavored “Jonah in the Wilderness,” while Chicago’s all-around talent Mother McCollum earns four tracks, with and without her Sanctified Singers.
Scattered among these amalgamators of pop, folkways and divine fervor are the preachers whose charisma and literary chops had such an impact on the church communities of this era. None is more regal than the Rev. A.W. Nix, who has two sermons here; but the blues-obsessed Rev. Emmett Dickinson is racier in “What the Men Wanted the Women Was Sitting On,” and as far as inventiveness goes, it’s hard to beat the Rev. J.M. Gates, who may have coined the popular midcentury phrase “there’s a dead cat on the line” to describe a child who, perhaps because of a woman’s adultery, doesn’t resemble his father. (Listen to the sermon to appreciate his full analogy.) Invoking the news of the day, these preachers provided the glue that made biblical lessons stick in the contemporary moment, and their offerings are both highly entertaining and intellectually rich.
From the hard bench warmed by these discourses to the teeming sidewalks where gospel guitarists had to be flashy to gain souls’ attention, King traces the wildly vibrant outlines of a moving stage where gospel told the African-American story. The sound of Unearthly Gospel does sometimes seem supernatural, bringing these long-buried voices so richly to life. But most of all, the music here speaks deeply of the world where it first came to life — a world every music lover needs to understand in order to really grasp how today’s sounds eventually took hold.
First Listen: 'When I Reach That Heavenly Shore: Unearthly Black Gospel 1926-1936'
Artist: Various Artists
Album: When I Reach That Heavenly Shore: Unearthly Black Gospel 1926-1936
- Seventh Day Adventists Choir, 'On Jordan's Stormy Bank We Stand'
- McCollum's Sanctified Singers, 'Glory! Glory! Hallelelujeh'
- Primitive Baptist Choir Of North Carolina, 'Fight On Your Time Ain't Long'
- Jubilee Gospel Team, 'Let Jesus Lead You'
- Elder Oscar Saunders & Congregation, 'Preaching With Singing'
- Roosevelt Graves & Brother, 'I'll Be Rested (When The Roll Is Called)'
- Rev. A.W. Nix, 'Hiding Behind The Stuff'
- Edward W. Clayborn 'The Guitar Evangelist,' 'Let That Lie Alone'
- Rev. T.E. Weems, 'The Devil Is A Fisherman'
- McCollum's Sanctified Singers, 'Oh Lord I'm Your Child'
- Rev. William Ransom, 'Abraham Have Mercy On Me'
- Primitive Baptist Choir Of North Carolina, 'Father I Stretch My Hands Up To Thee'
- Blind Joe & Emma Taggart, 'I Wish My Mother Was On That Train'
- Rev. J.M. Gates, 'Dead Cat On The Line'
- Laurel (Mississippi) Fireman's Quartette, 'You Gotta Live Your Religion Every Day'
- Fa Sol La Singers, 'Rejoicing On The Way'
- Blind Gussie Nesbit, 'Canaan's Land'
- Elder Oscar Saunders & Congregation, 'Everybody Will Be Happy Over There'
- Edward W. Clayborn 'The Guitar Evangelist,' 'Jesus Will Make It Alright'
- Primitive Baptist Choir Of North Carolina, 'Heaven Belongs To You'
- Eddie Head & His Family, 'Lord I'm The True Vine'
- Henry Thomas, 'Jonah In The Wilderness'
- Rev. D.C. Rice, 'Angels Rolled The Stone Away'
- Blind Gussie Nesbit, 'Pure Religion'
- Primitive Baptist Choir Of North Carolina, 'I Love Thy Church O Lord'
- Jubilee Gospel Team, 'Stations Will Be Changed'
- Mother McCollum, 'When I Take My Vacation In Heaven'
- Rev. Emmet Dickinson, 'What The Men Wanted The Women Was Sitting On'
- Washington Phillips, 'Train Your Child'
- Rev. William Ransom, 'He Shall Speak For Himself'
- Edward W. Clayborn 'The Guitar Evangelist,' 'I Heard The Angels Singing'
- Primitive Baptist Choir Of North Carolina, 'The Day Is Past And Gone'
- Jubilee Gospel Team, 'I Know The Lord Has Laid His Hands On Me'
- Laurel (Mississippi) Fireman's Quartette, 'I Won't Have To Cross Jordan Alone'
- Blind Joe & Emma Taggart, 'I'll Be Satisfied'
- Primitive Baptist Choir Of North Carolina, 'Blessed Be The Tie That Binds'
- Edward W. Clayborn 'The Guitar Evangelist,' 'I Shall Not Be Moved'
- Jubilee Gospel Team, 'Don't Know When Old Death Will Call For Me'
- Rev. J.C. Burnett, 'Great Day Of His Wrath Has Come'
- Mother McCollum, 'I Want To See Him'
- Rev. A.W. Nix, 'Going To Hell & Who Cares'